The dearest oral tradition to our heart, that the city was the favorite residence of The Grand Prince Géza, of King Stephen I and his wife Gisela. Veszprém reached the height of its popularity around the first millennium during the reign of the first royal couple. They established a bishopric, and with their support the St. Michael's Cathedral and the Nuns' Monastery of Veszprémvölgy, where, according to the legend, those vestment made that became the coronation mantle of the Hungarian kings. Gisela donated the embroidered garment to the church of Veszprém, which, according to the interpretation of the posterity, made the settlement to the “city of the queens," which was confirmed by law in 1216 as the bishop's coronation right.
According to our ancestors, Veszprém was built on seven hills, and archaeological findings also prove that people lived in this area in prehistoric times.
The town was originally called Bezprem, as a compound word of Slavic origin. Meaning, according to our linguists: uneven. The memory of Queen Gisela recalls Bonfini's (the historian of King Matthias) legendary explanation: Queen Gisela withdrew her fur coat with a cry of no fur, to contribute to the cost of building St. Michael's Cathedral. There was also a widespread opinion that derived the name of Veszprém from the German name of the town's well, White Well, "Weissbrunn".
In addition to the relics of the St Michael's Cathedral, the cult of the Blessed Queen is preserved and reinforced by a series of events reviving the historic era of the Gisela Days. The true story and spirit of their form, personality, existence and their deeds live in the culture and effervescence of the city.
Albert Vetési, the Bishop of Veszprém decorated the cathedral in the spirit of the late Gothic, and the name of Bishop Péter Beriszló and Croatian Ban is related to the modernization of the fortifications of the Castle. The following centuries brought destruction and reconstruction, fires, earthquakes, and epidemics ravaged the city, destroying the Hungarian lords who fought for power, not sparing the country's first higher education institution, the 13th centurian Chapter College.
In the middle of the 16th century, Veszprém became almost equal to the land due to Ottoman attacks. Therefore, in the remains of particular architectural value, the Chapel of St. George and the Chapel of Gizella are included. The reconstruction began in the begining of the 18th century, in the Baroque sense. Bishop Márton Padányi Bíró eliminated the medieval tiny alley-like character of the Castle, creating a representative Trinity Square lined with canon palaces, creating one of the largest inhabited, historic castles in Hungary.
5th MILLENNIUM B.C.: Neolithic-Chalcolithic settlement where the present-day Jutasi housing estate (Jutasi lakótelep) is.
2nd MILLENNIUM B.C.: Fortified seat of a tribal chieftain on the Castle Hill (Várhegy) in the middle of the Bronze Age.
ROMANS IN PANNONIA
AD 2-4th CENTURY: Roman Villa at Baláca (Villa Romana) – Caesariana.
END OF THE 6th CENTURY – BEGINNING OF THE 10th CENTURY: Avar findings in the territory of present-day Veszprém.
HUNGARIAN CONQUEST OF THE CARPATHIAN BASIN
895-896: The Hungarian tribes settle in the Carpathian Basin.
Hungarian Conquest: In the beginning of the 10th century, Veszprém and its region is taken into possession by “Prince” Géza’s family.
VESZPRÉM IN THE ÁRPÁD ERA DURING THE REIGN OF KING STEPHEN AND QUEEN GISELLA
END OF THE 10th CENTURY: Development of the princely and royal seat.
997: Stephen defeats Koppány in a battle near Veszprém.
1001-1002: Establishment of the bishopric of Veszprém and of the first cathedral of the country, the St. Michael Cathedral (Szent Mihály Bazilika).
1018: Establishment of a Greek nunnery in the Veszprém Valley (Veszprémvölgy). Presumably the chasuble which became the coronation mantle of the Hungarian kings was made here.
VESZPRÉM DURING THE REIGN OF THE ÁRPÁD HOUSE
1216: The pope affirms by law that the bishops of Veszprém have the right to crown queens – Veszprém becomes the town of queens.
1239: The Dominican Saint Catherine Nunnery (Szent Katalin zárda) is established. Daughter of King Béla IV, Saint Margaret of the Árpád House lives here for a while.
1276: Péter Csák’s troops attacks the castle of Veszprém, ransacks the cathedral and sets fire to the country’s first school of higher education.
FROM THE ANJOU ERA TO THE BATTLE OF MOHÁCS
1458-1486: The town of Veszprém becomes a cultural centre during the time that Albert Vetési is its bishop. In 1476 he crowned Queen Beatrix.
FROM THE TURKISH-HUNGARIAN WARS TO THE RÁKÓCZI WAR OF INDEPENDENCE
1527-1683: The Castle changes hands eleven times.
1683: The town gets rid of the Turks permanently.
1701: Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor blows up Veszprém’s so-called végvár (Hungarian castles along the border built as defense against the Ottoman Empire).
THE RE-BUILDING OF VESZPRÉM IN THE 18th CENTURY
1745-1762: Márton Biró Padányi is the bishop of Veszprém. During his time, the Castle Hill district (Várnegyed) begins to change into what will become its present-day image.
1762-1773: Ignác Koller is the last bishop főispán (a high-ranking officer appointed by the king). He builds the baroque style Bishop’s Palace (Püspöki Palota) between 1776 and 1778.
1767: György Tummler’s water conduit device is being built.
VESZPRÉM IN THE FIRST HALF OF THE 19TH CENTURY
1813: Számmer Press publishes Mondolat, a significant document of the Hungarian neology.
1814: Veszprém’s theatre company, the Stadt Theater, is formed.
3rd OF NOVEMBER, 1842 AND 5th OF MARCH, 1848:
Sándor Petőfi visits Veszprém.
17th OF MARCH, 1848: The citizens of Veszprém participate in the Hungarian Revolution and Freedom Struggle of 1848.
FROM THE SURRENDER AT VILÁGOS TO THE TURN OF THE CENTURY
SECOND HALF OF THE 19TH CENTURY: The town-structure changes; new streets and buildings are built, the town’s water and sewer system is finished, the manufacturing industry is established and small businesses are founded.
1887: The County Hall is built.
VESZPRÉM AT THE BEGINNING OF THE 20TH CENTURY – PEACETIME AND WORLD WAR I
1903: Establishment of the “Museum Society of Veszprém County” (Veszprémvármegyei Múzeumi Egyesület).
1908: Opening of the theatre, development of the electricity network.
31ST of DECEMBER, 1916: Baron Károly Hornig, bishop of Veszprém crowns Zita, the last Hungarian queen.
VESZPRÉM BETWEEN THE WORLD WARS AND DURING WWII
1925: The “County Museum” (Vármegyei Múzeum) is completed.
1935: The “Bakonyi House” is built (Bakonyi Ház).
1936: The Heroes’ Gate (Hősök Kapuja) is built to commemorate the victims of WWI.
1938: To honor the 900th anniversary of King Stephen’s death, several monuments are restored and the stone statue of King Stephen and Queen Gisella is unveiled on the Castle Hill. The Viaduct, built in 1937, receives the name St. Stephen Viaduct (Szent István völgyhíd).
IN 1944, FROM THE END OF OCTOBER TO THE 6TH of DECEMBER,
the Holy Crown of Hungary is kept in Veszprém.
VESZPRÉM FROM 1945 TO THE PRESENT
1ST OF FEBRUARY, 1946: Hungary becomes a republic.
1949: The “University of Chemical Industry” (Veszprémi Vegyipari Egyetem) – today University Pannonia (Pannon Egyetem) - is established.
23RD of OCTOBER, 1956: The citizens of Veszprém participate in the Revolution and Freedom Struggle of 1956.
4TH OF NOVEMBER, 1956: Soviet troops capture the town.
Since 1957: Construction of public institutions and housing estates.
1958: The Kittenberger Kálmán Plants and Wildlife Park opens.
1967-1968: The new image of the town’s centre starts to form.
1975: The renovation of the valuable historic buildings and of the castle and the city center
FROM 1989: Due to Hungary’s political transition, the Soviet troops (present since 1945) leave the country. Veszprém receives new privileges as it becomes a town with county level authority and function. The bishopric receives the rank of archbishopric. The streets’ former names are restored.
2010: The full renewal of the Veszprém Valley and the town centre begins.
Source: Bőszéné Szatmári-Nagy Anikó: Veszprém város története a kezdetektől napjainkig,
Balassa László - Kralovánszky Alán: Veszprém, Panoráma - Magyar városok sorozat
European Union, Hungary, Central Transdanubia, seat of Veszprém county
110 km from Budapest to southwest
15 km from Lake Balaton, to north
25 km from Bakony hills, to south
GPS coordinates: 47.09456, 17.90612
The city of the Queens is situated on the hills and valleys of the Séd stream, at the confluence of three small landscapes: it is bordered from north the Bakony hills, from south the Balaton-highland, from east the northwest extension of the plain Mezőföld, the Veszprém-terrace. This centrality had an important role in the development of the city.
Veszprém is the highest situated county seat: its surface is an average of 260 meters above the sea level. At the same time, in the city there aren’t rare a 30-40 metres height difference. This is especially outstanding on the south and east side of the Séd-valley, where steep dolomite rocks break high due to the work of the northwest winds.
By plane you can reach Veszprém from the Ferihegy International Airport and from the Balaton Airport in Sármellék by approximately 1.5 hour drive by car. Budapest is connected with direct flights to many cities of Europe and Sármellék welcomes charter flights from the most important sender countries.
On road Veszprém is in the junction of several country’s main roads, which makes it easily accessible both from home and abroad. It is connected to Budapest by the M7 Motorway and the Main Road Nr. 8. From the capital and the Transdanubian cities (Győr, Székesfehérvár, Szombathely, Siófok) can be reached within 1 or 2 hours. There are numerous scheduled bus connections to Budapest and the county seats.
By train Veszprém is located on the Budapest-Szombathely railway line, which is served by several express trains daily. The city can be reach without change from the Slovenian capital city, Ljubjana. The Veszprém-Győr railway line goes in the romantic valley of the Cuha stream, which makes the journey itself an experience as well.
Number of inhabitants:
Bottrop (D), Gladsaxe (DK), Nitra (SK), Ottignies-Louvain-la-Neuve (B), Passau (D), Rovaniemi (FIN), Sepsiszentgyorgy (RO), Tarnów (PL), Tartu (EST) , Tirat-Carmel (IL)
Ningbo (CN), Saumur (F)
Veszprém, The city of Queens